Sunday, January 26, 2020

Behavioral And Emotional Disorders Education Essay

Behavioral And Emotional Disorders Education Essay Behavioral/emotional disorders represent the broad category, used in educational settings among the children and adolescents with difficulties. As a fact, the observed behavior of children may depend on many factors. Emotional disturbance is a diagnostic category that includes various forms of inadequate emotional reactions (emotional numbness, unreasonable fears, inappropriate euphoria, etc..), the inability of emotional self-control (uncontrolled invasion of anger, weeping, cheerfulness, etc..), and chronic pathological changes in emotional behavior (Livingstone and Rosen, 1991). The examples of behavioral/emotional disorders  include such disabilities: PDD,  autism,  Rett syndrome,  PDD-NOS,  Asperger syndrome  and  ADHD. As a fact, it has been proved that children with special educational needs, who studied in the mainstream schools, have shown much better results in studying and development (Lehmkuhle and Garzia, 1993). These indicators are the most important. The educational process shows, that when children with some special educational needs study in the mainstream schools, they forget about their problems or defects and they consider themselves as everyone else. It is the way it should be. The results have shown, that the mainstream schools can do miracles for some children who can get better while communicating with other children, getting new friends and new sense in studying (Howell and Stanley,  1988). Childrens emotions and behavior, as a rule, hide more serious problems that can be overcome in communication and in the mainstream schools. The place where there are a lot of children, a child with a health problem will not consider himself such, as the aim of the teachers to give proper knowledge and educate children. Consequently, children who are not limited in their actions and studying usually recuperate faster and have a considerable progress combating their health problems (Arnot, 2010). Communication disorder includes the speech and language disorders, which, as a rule, refer to the problems in communication among children. Communication disorder can range from simple sound substitution to the complete inability to understand and use the language. For example, such problems as dyslexia the selective impaired ability to master reading and writing skills, while maintaining the overall ability to learn, can be overcome by allowing children with these problems study in the mainstream schools and there can be a great and unexpected benefit to their health. Children with special educational needs have to live among other people, communicate with them and to have a normal and happy life. As a fact, dyslexia is a specific type of impairment of learning, having a neurological nature.  It is characterized by the inability to quickly and accurately recognize words, to decode, learn the skills of spelling (Bailet, 2010).  These difficulties are associated with defective p honological components of language.  They exist, despite the preservation of other cognitive abilities and complete learning environment.  A second violation occurs in comprehension, lack of readers experience and vocabulary. Typically, problems in speech articulation and expression are detected in the period when the kids learns new sounds or to begin to express their thoughts.  The severity of the disease can vary greatly.  For example, in early childhood, mild forms of phonological disorders are relatively common, they are suffered by about 10% of children.  Many of them get rid of such problems, and from six or seven years only 2-3% of children to their problems meet the criteria of phonological disorders.  Similarly, expressive speech disorder (affecting 2-3%) and mixed expressive-receptive disorder (affecting less than 3%) both are relatively common for school-age children.  Fortunately, in the middle and late adolescence most children with the disorder of speech development are starting to have a normal speech.  About half of them completely got rid of problems, whereas the other half showed significant improvement, but may still remain some degree of impairment to late adolescence.  In contrast, the type of congenital disorders, course and prognosis of the disease for children with acquired type of communication disorder (occurring as a result of brain injury or paralysis) depends largely on the severity of injuries, of which it is part of the brain is damaged, and the age of the child in  time of the injury and the degree of language development at this time.   Although over time the problems themselves of the speeches usually disappear or are reduced in children with a disorder of communication, from an early age, often there are marked negative patterns of behavior (Beitchman and Young, 1997).  Such behavioral disorders are as hyperkinetic disorder and attention deficit disorder may exacerbate existing problems of communication, reflected in how children interact with peers and how they cope with learning tasks.  Since teachers are increasingly aware of the importance to give children special needs and the opportunity to interact with normally developed children, the school system began to place children with various problems in common, rather than isolated classes. Placing developmentally delayed children along with their normal counterparts based on the premise that children with special needs will benefit from communicating with normally developed peers and will be spared from the effect of labeling and placement in institutions.  The effect of interaction with peers in the social field reminds of the benefits of environmental factors that influence the course of development of children with special needs (Toppelberg and Shapiro, 2000). Developmental disorder as a rule occurs at some stage in a  childs development, often retarding the development, which can include  psychological  or physical disorders. As a fact, dyslexia can be related to communication and developmental disorders. Sometimes, children with special educational needs have the lack of communication and understanding. There are many communication challenges, emotional and behavioral disorders, physical disabilities, and developmental disorders that can be cured. Recent research on children with communication disorders has shown that if the process of education in the mainstream schools can help these children, then they definitely have to go to the mainstream schools. There are several problems in one way or another, of each person, facing dyslexics. Most common problems are dyslexic: delay in developing the ability to read, write, memorize the spelling; disorientation in space, disorganization; difficulties with the perception of information; difficulty in recognizing words, failure to understand what has just been read; clumsiness or poor coordination; attention deficit disorder, sometimes accompanied by hyperactivity. All the symptoms of dyslexia are the symptoms of disorientation.  It is impossible to recognize dyslexia in itself, but to recognize the disorientation is quite possible.  The result of the orientation is an accurate perception of the environment, including a two-word printed on paper.  And as a result, the child cannot accept the surrounding reality as perceived her by other people. There are almost no objective methods for determining the characteristics of the brain neglect of the child.  Often in the case of low-quali ty education, for the social worker it is more convenient to make a diagnosis of dyslexia, rather than objectively investigate and determine the socio-educational background, which led to difficulties in reading (Waters, 2001). Dyslexia represents a specific learning difficulty that mainly affects reading and spelling, and it is also characterized by difficulties in processing word-sounds and weaknesses in short-term verbal memory. As a fact, dyslexia is not a result of low intelligence, merely concerned with reading difficulties, the result of poor eyesight or hearing, the result of an emotional problem, an impediment to a possible academic career or a middle-class excuse for poor academic achievement. The main areas tested for dyslexia are visual motor short-term memory, auditory memory and phonological awareness the ability to manipulate sounds within words (Solan and Brannan, 1994). Symptoms of Dyslexia may also include left/right confusions, trouble generalizing, poor concept of time, mispronunciation of multisyllabic words, difficulties in organizing self/time/work or easily distracted. The possible areas of difficulties are: reading: learning to decode, using sounds (phonemes), selecting materials, retaining what has been read, keeping up with set reading, spelling: interfering with written expression and choice of vocabulary, note-taking: copying quickly and accurately, distinguishing main points, writing and listening simultaneously, and writing: handwriting, written expression, sentence structure, punctuation, grammar, planning and structuring written work, sequencing ideas, editing and proof-reading. Possible areas of difficulty can also be: oral language: taking in information, misunderstanding instructions or information, sorting what is said in group discussion, word-finding, pronunciation; examinations: timed conditions exacerbate reading, writing and spelling problems, recall of information, achieving marks in line with course work; presentations: lack of confidence, word-finding problems, pronunciation, reading out loud, losing place, sequencing information, organizing time, easily distracted, clumsy use of equipment. As a fact, there can also occur different problems, connected with dyscalculia- problems in math, visual disturbance, etc. The objectives are to help the dyslexic learner to build on existing strengths, to develop strategies for lifelong learning, to build confidence and to bring about an understanding of individual differences (Blakeslee, 1991). Towards the equity of access there should be provided help with information processing, help for reading, help with note taking, help with specialized vocabulary and help with assignments. Despite disadvantages that the mainstream schools can represent for children, children with communication and developmental disorders will benefit from communication with classmates an d will not pay attention to their health problem (Williams  and LeCluyse, 1992). Another example of developmental disorder is Autism. Autism is a serious violation of the mental development, which primarily affected the ability to communicate, the social interaction.  Behavior of children with autism is also characterized by a rigid stereotype (of repeating the basic movements such as shaking hands or jumping to complex rituals), and often destructive (aggression, self-harm, shouting, negativism, etc.).   Level of intellectual development in autism may be the most diverse: from severe mental retardation to giftedness in certain areas of knowledge and art, in some cases, children with autism have no speech, marked abnormalities in motor development, attention, perception, emotional and other areas of the psyche.  More than 80% of children with autism are the people with disabilities    Exceptional diversity spectrum disorders and their severity can reasonably assume that training and education of children with autism the most challenging section of Correctional Pedagogy (Wolk and Giesen, 2010). Physical disorders. As an example of the physical disorder can be named Developmental Co-ordination Disorder. Developmental Co-ordination Disorder is a subtly different condition by definition, in practice, and very similar to dyspraxia. Dyspraxia is a lifelong developmental disability and co-ordination, which is more common in males than in females, affecting an estimated 8-10% of all children.  Ripley, Daines and Barrett say it in developed dyspraxia it is difficult to let his body do what we want and when we want to do it and that these difficulties can be regarded as significant when they  in the range of normal activities are expected of children of a certain age. As a fact, Developmental Co-ordination Disorder has main characteristics, such as common, clumsy children, chronic health condition, co-morbid and consequences. It has been also proved, that Developmental Co-ordination Disorder affects one child in every classroom. Developmental Co-ordination Disorder also has an impact on the family, which consists of the facts that parental concerns often not heard or acknowledged, there is frustration with health care and educational systems, overprotective world as a hostile place, stress regarding daily activities around the home, aggression and criticism from strangers, embarrassment and relieved once diagnosis any diagnosis is made. The other term clumsy child syndrome refers to the gross and fine motor difficulties of the patient.  The condition affects both the ability of action planning and action learning, for example, the storage functions in the brain is for action. The cause of developmental dyspraxia may be a result of immature neurons development.  Dyspraxia is often part of a continuum of related coordination and developmental disorders.   The Dyspraxia is often associated with other disorders, such as with Aspergers syndrome, autism, dyslexia and dyscalculia. Life experiences of resilient young adults with DCD include coordination difficulties are context-specific, the facts that they can struggle, as children, with issues of social isolation and lack of participation, they remember pull-out therapy and being made to work on handwriting very negatively, social/emotional health and life course can improve when kids enter good secondary school and effective teaching accommodations and support are critical factors. The experience shows, that allowing children visit mainstream schools and to live as normal children without serious health problems, children get more relaxed and able to understand more things. This way, their developmental processes accelerate and they have more desire to study. Communication, as a fact, helps a lot for those who especially need it. The other example is Dyspraxia an impairment of the ability to automatically execute specific movements in the absence of any paralysis or paresis of the muscles involved in movement.  The subject must voluntarily control every persons move, which is very expensive care, and makes the coordination of complex movements of everyday life extremely difficult, so it is rarely achieved.  It is a developmental apraxia of origin. Dyspraxia is a little known disability that concerns, however 3% to 6% of children.  Three quarters of children who are suffering from this disability are not diagnosed.  Dyspraxia often goes unnoticed because it is invisible.  It is sometimes blamed on a mentally retarded or ill will. There are many types of dyspraxia. Possible symptoms are: developmental disorders engines: slowness, clumsiness, difficulty performing voluntary movements, coordinated (walking, cycling, swimming, ball games, cut his meat, dressing, brushing teeth, tying shoelaces); dysgraphia: difficulty in handwriting and automate the handwriting; eye problems (oculomotor): jerks and eye tracking, visual fixation: difficulties with reading, following his line to locate a page and adopt an exploration strategy of the page; speech: oral apraxia facial-lingual, speech difficulties; speech and language disorders (pseudo-dyslexia driven by dyspraxia), language difficulties writing logical-mathematical problems: difficulties to ask operations in columns, to understand the mathematical facts, problems sequences, difficulty in positioning itself in time. Consequently, Developmental Co-ordination Disorder, dyslexia, communication, physical and developmental disorders can be cured and they have to be cured. Sometimes, it is enough to communicate with a person and to help him, and he will feel better. Community should not avoid communicating with people with some defects or health problems. And as well, there have to be created special policies considering these issues. That is why it is more beneficial for the society to allow the children with certain disorders to visit mainstream schools and to be able recuperate faster. The social issues are considered the most important for people and that is why there have to be conditions for the comfortable living for all people.

Saturday, January 18, 2020

A Critique on What Lips My Lips Have Kissed

Edna St. Vincent Millay’s What Lips My Lips Have Kissed, is an imagistic regression into the mind of a desensitized woman.   It grazes the mystic ideals held within intimacy and sexual intercourse, while also maintaining an underlying awareness of the author’s bisexuality.Though, the relationship stigmas she touches on still apply to human love affairs today, this poem can only be seen as revolutionary for its time period and the feminist movement.   In this essay I intend to show how this poem, among many of Millay’s other works, have attained cult status, due to their close correlation with her life.When Millay states What lips my lips have kissed, and where, and why, I have forgotten, she is obviously referring to her past lovers (MIllay).   The ideal that gives more value to this statement is knowing that these lovers include men, women and highly acclaimed laureates.   She goes on to use very symbolic imagery to signify the presence of these lost lov ers.Terms like, ghosts, birds, and of course lips, are used to identify their presence throughout the poem.   Millay likens herself to a tree, whose birds have vanished one by one (Millay).   This human connection to nature adds to the poems intrigue and its mysticism.   The entire purpose of her sullen regression is summed up at the end of the poem when she says,These last three stanzas sum up the main premise of the poem and also resemble the feelings of a woman who has been desensitized to intimacy.   This is a very revolutionary position for a woman to be in during the 1930’s to 50’s considering that the cultural expectations of the American women were very strict.Men feared that women would become unruly and sex crazed if they experienced sexual intercourse with more than one partner.   Millay’s promiscuous nature and her edgy perspective definitely go against the grain of what society expected.   This rebellious nature in the poem can be direct ly correlated to experiences in Millay’s real life as a bisexual.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

The Quintessential Guide to Ww1 Essay Topics

The Quintessential Guide to Ww1 Essay Topics Be quick to fulfill our English research paper topics for high school so you'll finish your paper in time. Additionally, you are going to be in a position to come up with your critical analysis skills as each historian interprets events differently, so you've got a chance to look at the same event from other perspectives. It's the brilliant case of persuasive writing! What You Can Do About Ww1 Essay Topics Starting in the Next Three Minutes Men and women didn't want to get forced to visit war or force someone to visit war since they realised how bad it was. They were also urged to provide things such as food and clothing for the soldiers on the fronts. Nationalism is often called the love of a person's country. Ww1 Essay Topics - Overview If you're looking for a Minneapolis HVAC contractor, we wish to be part of making your home the cozy palace it deserves to be. Facts, ultimately, will always win out against how folks are fee ling at a specific moment. Studying past events, individuals develop a better knowledge of the processes which happen on earth so they can construct a bright future. If you realize that you are in the identical situation, don't worry! There's no doubt that the usa has one of the most innovative economies on the planet. America should not offer foreign aid to other nations. For instance, if an overall direction is Ancient Rome, you can pick a specific emperor's reign period and talk about its economic, educational, or religious facets. History also permits students to get familiar with the culture and traditions of different nations, learn why specific laws are established, in addition to discover the roots of social movements. The U.S. government should offer internet service for every single citizen. It's pointless to study listings of present works on WW2 since there are too a lot of them. Perhaps, you're find just what you have to have in different categories. Base th is decision on your own personal interests. Observe the present research and determine the blanks you may fill with your essay. Writing an excellent essay might be a bit of cake if you're feeling inspired. This informative article is not going to only show you just how to choose argumentative essay topics, but it is going to also teach you just how to compose the undertaking, too! The majority of this guide is devoted to listing history topics that are great for essays, but first, it's important to get an easy process for using a list of potential essay topics such as this. Don't neglect to bring a strong hook at the beginning (introduction paragraph) and wind up with an impressive conclusion to create the reader want to talk about the interesting persuasive essay topics of your pick. Today there are lots of subjects out there for those seeking to compose good, argumentative essays. P.S. Keep in mind you may contact online academic writers to help in topic selection along with writing the entire paper from A to Z. When selecting an essay topic, learn more regarding the target audience beforehand. Ultimately, if you are supposed to write and essay but have very little knowledge or interest in the topic, remember that there are lots of custom essay writers which will gladly do the task for you. An excellent topic is among the absolute most essential things in a winning essay. The very best topic for you is the one which you love. Therefore, there are various interesting world history research topics to select from. Animal testing needs to be banned. Human cloning ought to be banned. You must restrict your topic first, so that you're able to proceed to research one specific field of the overall subject. The major issue is that theme ought to have no less than two valid viewpoint. Whatever They Told You About Ww1 Essay Topics Is Dead Wrong...And Here's Why From time to time, it is an excellent concept to resort to special essay topic generators which are available online. If you should compose a WWI topic by yourself and feel that you're quite short of ideas, you should benefit from ready suggestions which are available on the net and among ready projects, which are stored in libraries. An excellent topic is the one which makes you truly feel excited about the searching for interesting info and learning several new things. Second, get in contact with the writing experts at custom-writing. It is possible to also go to a library and surf the web to find more details. The net has made our life a good deal simpler. To get essay online, you merely will need to fill in the application form and you'll get excellent work on the desired topic. Shopping online isn't secure or secure.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

The Concept Of Contract in The Code Napoleon - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 2906 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category History Essay Type Compare and contrast essay Did you like this example? THE CONCEPT OF CONTRACT IN THE CODE NAPOLEON Introduction and historical background leading to the formation of the Code Napoleon One of the biggest dilemmas that jurist over the course of history have faced is over the question of codification of law. One school of thought believes that the best and most just application of law can be achieved only when the principles that will finally be used for dispute resolution are enunciated beforehand. These principles can then be applied to each case. A conflicting view held by proponents of the other school of thought holds the view that each problem that reaches the courts of law is sui generis[1] i.e. distinct in its own sense; therefore, it would not be apt to apply a premeditated solution to the case. The principle so laid down beforehand might not be able to anticipate the kind of problems it will be called upon to address in the normal course of working of the courts. The judges should, thus, be allowed to lay down principles in every case. This ideological difference formed a part of the intense tussle between 16th century English jurists Francis Bacon and Ed ward Coke. While Bacon espoused the cause of a uniform code, Coke was in favour of judges laying down the law. This aspect of the source of law, ultimately forms the biggest point of difference between the English common law and Continental Civil Law. The Code Napoleon or the Code Civil des FranÃÆ' §ois was declared as the supreme law to be used for governance in the territories of France[2] . The name Code Napoleon was ascribed to it in the year 1807. After Napoleon had been forced into exile, it reverted back to its original name but again in 1852 its name was changed to Code Napoleon. The code is nowadays commonly known as the French Civil code. While studying the historical background of the Napoleonic code, it would serve us well to keep in mind the fact that the Code Napoleon was not the first extensive codification of laws under one umbrella code. The very first such code was the Roman code à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“corpus jurisà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  of emperor Justinian. This code f ormed the basis for modern jurisprudence and largely affected the subsequent codes in various countries. The notable among such codes were the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“danske lovà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  of Denmark established by Christian V, Swedenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s (Sverige rikes lag) of 1736 and the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Allgemeines Landrecht fÃÆ' ¼r die PreuÃÆ'Ã… ¸ischen Staatenà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ,which was compiled on the orders of Frederick the Great in the year 1794.[3] The French civil code is more important than others because of the fact that it forms the basis of the legal systems in almost the whole world except for the common law countries like the United Kingdom, USA and India.[4] The legal system of post revolution France was, to put it mildly, in shambles. The country was plagued by multiplicity of laws operating in different parts of the country. While one section was governed by the older Roman law principles (droit ÃÆ' ©crit), the other part was under the law of customs known as coutumes (droit coutumier). These coutumes were generally different for different territories. It was in this regard that the great philosopher Voltaire quipped that a traveller in France changed his laws as often as he changed his horse.[5] Many attempts were made at drafting a uniform civil code in France but ultimately Napoleonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s attempt was most successful culminating in the adoption of the Code Napoleon in 1804. The legacy of this code remains unscarred to this date as it forms the basis of similar codifications in large parts of the modern world and many other countries where it has been adopted almost intoto.[6] Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "The Concept Of Contract in The Code Napoleon" essay for you Create order Structure of the Code For the purpose of clarity, the French Civil code is divided into various Books. These books have further been divided into à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“titlesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  which are basically headings under which subjects like marriage, contracts and emancipation have been discussed. The code comprises of three such books. The number of articles in the code stands at 2,281. The book one of this code is titled à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“of personsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and contains principles for personal laws in fields like marriage, family and divorce. The book two of the code has been christened à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Of property, and the Different modifications of propertyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and the third book which is also the most extensive is titled à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Of the Different modes of Acquiring Propertyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and contains relevant sections regarding contracts and shall form the basis for our study into the concept of contracts laid down in the Code Napoleon.[7] The articles relevant to contracts can be found in the book three under the title IX which reads à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“of contracts or conventional obligations in generalà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and runs from article 1101 through article 1369.[8] Further conceptions and applications of the cardinal rules of contracts can be found in titles IV, V, VIII and IX. The contracts of hiring and the contract of partnership have found special mention in titles VIII and IX respectively. Basic concepts of Contracts as laid down in the Code: The basic elements regarding contractual agreements are stated in the articles starting from article 1108 under the heading Des conditions essentielles pour la validitÃÆ' © des conventions (à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Of the conditions that are essential for the validity of agreementsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ). The article 1108 has laid down four essential ingredients for a contract[9]. These elements are: Consent of the Binding parties Capacity to enter into a contract A certain object forming the matter of the contract; and Lawful cause. Articles 1109 onwards up until 1122 deal with the first requirement i.e. consent. Article 1109 excludes contractual liability in cases where consent was given through mistake or under duress. Under Article 1110 errors of a lesser degree à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“erreurs sur la qualitÃÆ' © substantielleà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ [10] have been designated as not grounds enough for nullifying a contract. As per the provisions of the Article 1113, if violence is exercised towards a spouse of the contracting party, it becomes grounds for nullity of contract. Reverential fear of father or mother, albeit no violence has been committed will not suffice to annul a contract. This autonomy of will or autonomie de la volontÃÆ' © has been considered to be the linchpin of the French Law of Obligations.[11] The Section II is titled à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“Of the capacity of The contracting Partiesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . It starts at article 1123 which lays down that every person who has not been declared by law to the contr ary, is allowed to enter into a contract. Those incapable of entering into contracts are Minors, Interdicted Persons, Married Women (in cases laid down by law).[12] The Section III. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“of the object and matter of contractsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  deals with the third requirement enumerated in Article 1108. The Article 1126 stipulates for every legal contract to have for itself an object, a thing which one party is bound to give, to do or restrain from doing. The use or possession of a thing can form legal object for a contract. Article 1128 states that only the à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“objects of commerceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  can be the object of agreements. The object should at least be determinate i.e. have a definite form. The quantity of such an object has been granted to be uncertain. Future things may be the objects of an obligation.[13] The last section that has been inserted to clarify the provisions of article 1108 is Section IV titled à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“of the causeà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  . Under Article 1131, it has been stated that a contract that does not have a cause, or has a false or unlawful cause shall be void and will have no effect. The cause will be deemed to be unlawful when it is either expressly proscribed by law, is contrary to good morals or when it is against the sustenance of public order. The Chapter III deals with the effects of obligation. Under this section, the article 1134 states that an agreement that has been formed legally in consonance with the provisions of the civil code has the force of law and cannot be revoked sans the mutual agreement of the parties that too in good faith. Articles 1142 through Article 1145 deal with the right of a creditor in cases of non-performance of a contract. Section IV of the Chapter III contains articles which lay down the principles for damages in cases of non-performance of contracts. This section has been titled à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“of damages and interest resulting from the non-performance of an obli gationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ . Article 1146 lays down that a debtor will be liable to pay damages when he has exceeded the time during which he had been contracted to give or do something. He will have to pay damages and interest if he cannot prove that the reasons for the non-performance and failure to execute his obligations under the agreement were alien to him and outside the purview of his control. The corollary of this principle is also applicable. If the reasons for the failure on part of the debtor were outside his area of influence or control, no grounds for payment of damages and applicable interest will arise. The amount that will be payable to the creditor will generally be equal to the imputed loss suffered by him or on the basis of the profit, the benefit of which he has been deprived of due to non-performance on part of the debtor. Again, it should be noted that according to contents of Article 1150, the debtor will be compelled to pay only those damages which had been or could be anticipated and foreseen at the time of entering into the contract. Remote damages are therefore, not covered under this section. In peculiar cases where the amount of damages that will be payable if the obligations are not carried out by any one of the parties has been already mentioned and agreed upon in the contract, the claimant party will be eligible to get neither any amount less than or any sum more than such agreed amount. The Section V is called à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“of interpretation of agreementsà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  and lays down laws and rules regarding interpretation of ambiguous terms in a contract. This section starts at Article number 1156 which lays down that it is paramount to delve into the common intentions and objectives of the contracting parties to decipher the meaning of the terms of the contract rather than just applying a strict and literal interpretational tool. The ambiguous terms must be interpreted according to the usage and customs of the country in w hose territory, the contract is made.[14] The most important stipulation under this section is that when an ambiguous term has multiple interpretations, the clause(s) will be interpreted on the basis of the interpretation that is favourable to the party who has à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã…“contracted the obligationà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚  against the interpretation that is favourable to the party that has laid down the stipulations. The Section VI deals with the relations of contracting parties and terms of contract to third parties. The Chapter IV lists the various types of obligations that the French Civil Code recognises. Eg. Causal obligation, suspensive obligation and joint several obligations. The Chapter V has laid down the conditions under which the obligations will be deemed to have been completed or extinct. These are- By payment By novation Voluntary remission Compensation By intermixture By loss of the thing Nullity of recission By the effect of conditional dissolution; and By prescription. All the above mentioned conditions have then been extensively explained in the succeeding section of the Chapter. Similarities and Differences between the conception of contract in common law and in French civil law The French civil law has been adopted almost throughout the whole continental Europe, Latin America and in many other third world countries. Therefore, the concepts of contract laid down in the Code napoleon also find resonance in many parts of the world. Since, this code has such enormous influence on modern law, it becomes, but, elementary to try and find out the points of convergence and divergence between civil law and common law while trying to understand the Code Napoleon. Before trying to get into the complexities of law, it is essential to find the difference between these two concepts by looking at their most basic tenets. For this purpose, Professor Nichols has given a lucid definition to both of them. According to him, in French law, contract is an agreement between two parties, whereas in the common law, it is a promise in return for a legal consideration.[15] A very visible difference that comes to light almost instantly is the emphasis on the intention and auton omy of parties to conclude a contract in the French law and the opposite of this in common law. In common law, if the conduct of a person points to an intention to enter into a contract although no such intention in reality exists, it will be held that such an intention did exist. Mistake will not form a ground for escaping from contractual liability, provided that such mistake was not a direct consequence of the other partyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s actions.[16] Also it has been noted that the French system is averse to hold that a proposal to the public at large constitutes an offer, unlike the English courts.[17] In place of the English law concept of consideration, in the French law there exists the concept of requirement of cause and object to conclude a contract. The doctrine of cause has been extended to form the various categories of contracts like the contract of bienfeisance. The result is that this doctrine in instrumental in declaring purely gratuitous obligations valid unli ke consideration in English common law. [18] aclear advantage of civil law over common law is in its recognition of an option contract. Since no consideration is paid in option contract, it will not be binding in a common law setting but since agreement is present, the French courts will recognise it. In common law, the parties might try to avoid such a situation by paying a token amount. The common law courts recognise this shortcoming of common law and have tried to address it in recent times.[19] But, the French law lacks the generality that can be made applicable to a variety of cases. In common law, when a case comes for adjudication to a court, it provides an opportunity for testing old principles in light of their relevance and developing new guidelines. The common law therefore, can boast of a law of contract that is more practical and gives greater importance to reform.[20] Conclusions After the formation of the European Union and growing trade and commerce and cooperation between all the states in the world due to globalisation, there is a growing demand for the harmonization of different legal systems of the world. The French civil law and the English Common Law are the most important of them and a reading into the conceptions of contract held by them shows that while both of them try and solve the same problems from different perspectives with sometimes contradictory principles, they do hold similar views regarding dispute resolution. This can be amply seen from how the common law has tried to regulate option contract, a concept that has been enshrined and recognised in Napoleonà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s code. Also, the French law is trying to keep pace with the changing scenarios and has been modified some times to face the challenges of its era. For instance, the original code had given parties liberty to fix any rate of interest, but later in 1807, a maximum rate of interest of 5% in civil and 6% in commercial contracts was laid down.[21] These restrictions were again lifted in 1886 when commercial contracts were excluded from the purview of maximum rate of interest. Again in 1918, the rate of interest limitation on non commercial loans was also lifted. [1] JUDGE BEVERLY D EVANS, The Code Napoleon, GEORGIA HISTORICAL QUATERLY Vol. 6, No. 1 (MARCH, 1922), pp. 28-34. [2] Ibid. [3] TOM HOLMBERG, The Civil Code: An Overview, available at ( lastaccesed on 17th march,2014. [4] Supra, see note 1. [5] Supra, see note 3. [6] The importance and the significance of this legislation can be gauged solely from the fact that when Napoleon was asked about his achievements while he was in exile on the island of St. Helena, this is what he said My glory is not to have won forty battles, for Waterloos defeat will blot out the memory of as many victories. But nothing can blot out my Civil Code. That will live eternally. [7] THE FRENCH CIVIL CODE: LITERALLY TRANSLATED FROM THE ORIGINAL AND OFFICIAL EDITION, PUBLISHED AT PARIS IN 1804 BY A BARRISTER OF THE INNER TEMPLE, William Benning, Law Bookseller, 1827. (available at 3/CivilCode_1566_Bk.pdf) last accessed on 19th March, 2014. [8] ibid [9] Supra, see note 7, Article 1108, page 304. [10] Prof. Catherine Valcke, CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE BETWEEN THE ENGLISH, FRENCH, AND GERMAN CONCEPTIONS OF CONTRACT, European Review of Private Law, vol. 16, No. 1 (2008), pp. 29-62. [11] Ibid. [12] Article- 1124, Code Napoleon. [13] Article-1130, Code Napoleon. [14] Article-1159, Code Napoleon (1804) [15] NICHOLAS, The French Law of Contract 138, Butterwoths, 1932 [16] CATHERINE VALCKE, Convergence and Divergence Between English, French and German Conceptions Of Contract, European Review of Private Law, vol. 16, No. 1 (2008), pp. 29-62. [17] ANNE DE MOOR, Contract and Agreement in English and French Law, 6 Oxford J. Legal Stud. 275 1986 [18] Ibid [19] ARTHUR VON MEHREN, The French Civil Code and Contract: A Comparative Analysis of Formation and Form, LOUISIANA LAW REVIEW, 15 (1955) available at ( u/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2269context=lalrev) last accesed on 18th march, 2014. [20] Ibid. [21] MAURICE AMOS, The Code NapolÃÆ' ©on and the Modern World, Journal of Comparative Legislation and International Law, Third Series, Vol. 10, No. 4(1928), pp. 222-236

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

The Sustainability Of A Business Environment - 1228 Words

In a world surrounded by a growing population, an increased awareness of ecological issues, and push for sustainable development, businesses are being pressured to create plans for sustainability. Sustainability offers businesses, and society as a whole, the opportunity to create a more stable and economically friendly environment. Not only is sustainability involved within the environment, but it is also used in economic and social settings. Economic sustainability involves the use of taking a company’s assets and allocating them in an efficient way such that it allows the company to reach profitability. Moreover, social sustainability of a business environment involves using a business and their process to support and maintain current and future societies. The business world has invested heavily in sustainability in order to maintain a healthy ecosystem and social setting, but it has offered many difficulties. Sustainability is the future of our planet, and it needs to be ta ken seriously in order to benefit societies for years and years to come. Sustainability has been a difficult concept for companies to understand and implement. Sustainable development is a serious obstacle due to the fact that corporations are used to running their business the same way that they always have. Implementing a new process and operation takes time to understand and incorporate. In addition to learning a new way of business, corporations are faced with strict government regulations,Show MoreRelatedBusiness, Sustainability And The Natural Environment1617 Words   |  7 PagesBusiness, Sustainability and the Natural Environment, Daniel Katz During the past 25 years, awareness of the environment has increased tremendously. Non-profit organizations look beyond institutional goals, and instead, try to find a shared vision that works for everyone in the society. 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Monday, December 16, 2019

Memo Free Essays

Target millennium Is a strength because they respond well to their advertising strategy Also a weakness because they are normally more price-conscious Economic There prices are much higher than their competition which Is a weakness when the economy Is bad, because customers are more likely to go with the cheaper substitute Food prices are expected to rise, which may cause chipolata to raise there prices even more which will be a huge weakness, and may deter some customers Consumer spending may go down Coloratura Target individuals who care about sustainable, ethical and fresh food Huge strength because this is why people are willing to spend more Starting to use local farms Huge strength because by supporting the community, the community is more likely to support them Using solo panel and being more environmentally friendly is a trend people really like which makes it a strength 2. What are the conditions of Spittle’s industry environment? What makes you successful in this Ind ustry? Threat of new entrants Is quite low because the fast food Industry is mostly composed of big chain restaurants which makes It hard to come Into: this helps to make them successful because they are already a large business Power of suppliers Is medium because negotiation between suppliers and buyers do take place; but In the end thy have more power because food prices are fluctuating they have to charge more sometimes Product substitutes: high Though taco bells Cantina Bell is lesser quality ingredients they are the same type of items on the menu Jojoba also focuses on quality so they products are probably very similar Intensity of reveries High! Not only competing with people in the fast food industry but all food industry Very low switching costs for the customer To be successful in the fast food industry you need to be In the right location, have the right price, either you need to be low price, with lower quality food or high price, higher quality food. You need to be able to adapt to changes, because the market Is very volatile. We will write a custom essay sample on Memo or any similar topic only for you Order Now You need to have a way to bring your customers In and make them loyal to your company because there are so many substitutions available you want to make the value chain activities for Chipolata? Strategy: High price but high quality Social corporate responsibility Laid back and non-traditional advertising Value chain activities Buy from suppliers that sell mostly ethical meat Use solar power to lessen their carbon foot print Have any open kitchen so customers can see their food being made Use local farmers . Assess Spittle’s resources and capabilities. What are Spittle’s core competencies? Resources: they have a lot of resources that help with being successful their sustainable farms they purchase from their local farms the actual locations and buildings of their restaurants intangible: how they manage to make their margins bigger by having smaller restaurants and less staff capabilities: train employees well so they can use their resources effectively core competencies corporate social responsible; ethical farming, environmental awareness, local farming rest food, made daily 5. What are the challenges Chipolata faces in 2012? Prices of food are expected to increase Should they increase the price on their menu – making them even MORE expensive than their competition Cantina Bell is stealing customers and being advertised as being similar to Chipolata but cheaper Cantina bell is doing large advertising campaigns which Chipolata can’t afford to do 6. What do have you think they should do and why? I think that they will need to raise the price on the menus. They have already been racketed and known for years as being â€Å"Food with integrity’ and the only way not to raise prices is to stop using as much organics or ethical meat, which at this point I believe would hurt their image, and bottom line more than raising the prices. A one of their core competences is that they serve sustainable food, and I do not think they should shy away from this. As it is they have always been more expensive and still done well. As well if food prices do rise, most likely all other companies will have to raise their prices as well. Chipolata also does not have to worry about not being able to spend large budgets on advertising, the company has previously not done this and done well. Not doing large TV campaigns attracts their customers and makes chipolata more authentic. I believe they should continue to use local farms in more of the stores and with more products. If they support community members, the community is more likely to support them, even if it is higher prices. Chipolata strategy I high the only way to not is to go away from â€Å"food with integrity’. How to cite Memo, Papers Memo Free Essays Your dedication and hard work for our company have not gone unnoticed.   We would like to thank you for your sincere and honest work.   In recognition of your ability to continuously surpass company expectations, meet goals and objectives, and your excellent attendance record, we would like to reward you. We will write a custom essay sample on Memo or any similar topic only for you Order Now    You have been credited one additional vacation day with your benefits.   Please follow normal HR procedures to take advantage of this extra day off with pay. We sincerely appreciate the efforts you put forth.   We hope you continue to do such excellent work for our company!   It is due to employees such as you that we are as successful as we are. Sincerely, (insert name of sender and initial) Related essay: Memo for Team Building How to cite Memo, Essay examples Memo Free Essays Veteran’s Marketing Memo Military veterans stood up for our country and are not recognized enough for their dedication. There are many programs dedicated to providing assistance to veterans but not many ways to reward them for their devoted service to their country. Many veterans have been affected due to combat and some need help transitioning from military life to a civilian. We will write a custom essay sample on Memo or any similar topic only for you Order Now As the director of for a military veterans foundation I must raise money to create a fallen heroes monument. The first step is to identify the demographic and cryptographic in my development. For demographics we would deed to make the location an area that it has a good support system for veterans. After doing a lot of research Arlington, Virginia has many support systems in place for veterans. Here also lays the Veterans National Cemetery. In addition this area has a lot of retired veterans who have made this city their home after they are discharged from the Armed forces. I Identified this area as the primary prospect location for the fallen heroes monument due to some of the chirography’s that would play a major role In this project, beliefs and values. Being that the area Is already very familiar tit veteran’s affairs and It has become part of their culture. The population has a high statistical count for retired veterans that will provide a lot of support In attending and helping raise money for fallen soldiers that were lost at war. The targeted age group would range from 18- 75. This age group covers previous and recent wars that many of these veterans were part of or the likelihood is that someone in their family was part of. Within these age group there will also be many service members currently serving the country on active duty or reserve. How do demographics influence our fundraiser in a productive outcome? If we decide to do it in a different location where there are not as much military presence, would the outcome be as successful? The location Is the key and what will help drive the fundraiser. I want the veterans and families of loss soldiers to feel supported and as a reward bullying this monument In a location that Is heavily populated by the military so It can become an attraction not Just for locals but also anyone around the world who are passionate about recognizing fallen soldiers. We have to remember that our supporters are not SST the locals but rather targeting the entire armed forces. Many young soldiers lives were lost in the recent war as many lives were taken in the past wars. Keeping a wide age range provides the different veterans and families the opportunity to be included and supporting in any way possible whether they are present or not. Value is the worth or importance to something. This will make our veterans and mourning family members feel that the money invested is to remember those who fought for our country and sacrificed their life for those at home. The Importance of this fundraiser s for a monument for the recognition for those who served. Attitude is the way our supports think and feel about it. We will make the supporters feel that they are providing those affected positivist to there life. Our supporters need to feel that they are making a difference. I choose this location due to the commitments and beliefs of the soldiers surrounding the area. Dedication. There are many programs dedicated to providing assistance to veterans from the Armed forces. I identified this area as the primary prospect location for the role in this project, beliefs and values. Being that the area is already very familiar tit veteran’s affairs and it has become part of their culture. The population has a high statistic count for retired veterans that will provide a lot of support in attending group would range from 18 – 75. This age group covers previous and recent wars that successful? The location is the key and what will help drive the fundraiser. I want the veterans and families of loss soldiers to feel supported and as a reward building this monument in a location that is heavily populated by the military so it can become an country and sacrificed their life for those at home. The importance of this fundraiser How to cite Memo, Papers Memo Free Essays Marketing project/ Program manager Subject: Progress of employees Date: September 9th, 2014 The purpose of this memo Is to present the progress of the employees and their results towards the surveys on social media usage at work. I believe with results of the employees’ surveys we can determine a social media policy. Summary Internet based media has become an enveloping part of our lives that continues to grow in our culture. We will write a custom essay sample on Memo or any similar topic only for you Order Now Unfortunately the usage towards social media has become a great issue as well as a constant distraction during work hours. Inning the results of the surveys, we will determine if keeping the social media usage to a bare minimum during work hours should be highly enforced with exceptions of breaks, lunch breaks, and emergencies. Discussion Employees here at sprint are hardworking and friendly. However, social media usage at work can be distracting. The surveys that have been handed out, if answered honestly, have assisted us in obtaining accurate results concerning social media usage. We evaluated whether or not social media usage is a distraction, and possibly an expanding issue. It has been documented that employees have been caught costing on Backbone, Twitter, Mainstream, and Youth during work hours. Employees raised a point that the use of social media is personal. We are only evaluating social media use on company equipment or during paid company time. Although there have been debates, the company must also reduce UN-filtered media exposure from personal postings of employees. Through research and observation, this committee has concluded that some employees do not know where they should commit their time and assets. It seems with social media usage rising every year, It Is almost becoming a social necessity. Even If It Is seen as exercising freedom of speech by some team members (Like surveys have suggested) others feared that the media usage has a potential of exposing employer to confidential Information that could be considered In the decision to retain an employee. We do not want social media usage to Infringe on company policy. Providing notable service to customers. When employees need assistance with work related situations it’s extremely distracting to notice some of their coworkers on their media device and not paying attention to the task at hand. At times it isn’t notable owe distracting the media usage is. Even though we have not received every survey a majority employees results have been clear to prohibit media usage during work hours. The closing poll of the surveys will end on September 12 and I will have results organized by Monday September 1 5th. Recommendation I am requesting to you that I highly recommend prohibiting social media usage as it seems to be a huge distraction for the employees in the workplace as majority has stated. As a result Employees who are still working may concentrate and enjoy a quiet work environment. How to cite Memo, Papers

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Health Promotion Competencies Samples †

Question: Discuss about the Health Promotion Competencies. Answer: The essay here discusses about the importance of evaluation of heath promotion programs. There is further discussion of the three types of evaluation and their process, impact and outcomes. The essay also describes how each of the evaluation process holds an importance in the health promotion programs. There is also an intervention of health promotion in a community setting with a focus on the aim and objectives of the program and a description of the process, impact and outcome of the evaluation in reflecting those aims and objectives. Program referred as group of complementary and related activities intended for achieving specific results or outcomes. For instance, shopping skill classes, demonstrations for healthy cooking and community gardens can be program components developed for the improvement of nutritional status of families with low income (Eldredge 2016). However, evaluation of program described as the systematic reporting, analysis and gathering of data regarding a program for assistance in decision-making. Through the process of evaluation, one can also get access to information that is required for improving the effectiveness of efforts for health promotion. The practitioners for health promotion undertake evaluation of health promotion programs for collection of evidence on the impact or effectiveness of the program. They also undertake evaluation of health programs in order to be accountable to the stakeholders and to clients, funders, staff, community and volunteers (Bauman and Nutbeam 2013). The evaluation of the health promotion program is also important for identifying ways for improving the program. Evaluation also helps the health practitioners in understanding ways that work and the reason for which some ways that does not work. The assessment of needs for the target population understood through the process of evaluation. The process of evaluation of health promotion programs also helps in the improving of the use of the program materials and for comparing the program planned with other health promotion programs. The evaluation of the health promotion program done for accessing the efficiency of the program and at the same time testing a hypothesis needed for the purpose of research. Initially program evaluation done for determining the effectiveness of the program but today the evaluation done for ensuring continuous improvement of quality. The common factor observed amongst American Indians is that they experience significant disparities in health disparities compared to the population in United States in General. Therefore, there have been steps taken for a Healthier Anishinaabe program for implementation of health promotion activities in multiple communities of American Indians in Michigan. Thus, through evaluation of this Health Promotion Program it becomes easier in decreasing the impact of chronic diseases on the health of Michigans American Indian health (Edgerly 2009). Thus, through the article one can understand that evaluation of health promotion programs are an effective approach in the reduction of health disparities amongst the population. The evaluation of program categorized into three main categories based on when the evaluation took place and the kind of information collected. The first is the Process Evaluation that is type of evaluation mainly focused on programs already implemented. This technique of evaluation examines the task and procedures necessary in providing a program. In process evaluation, there is tracking of the quantity and at the same time description of the people followed (Moore 2015). This type of evaluation also helps in keeping a track of the type and quantity of service provided. This technique of evaluation also provides description of the services provided and the problems faced while the service provided. The process also takes care of the quality of service provided and implementation of evaluation. Thus, process evaluation helps to provide early warning of any problems that might occur in the health promotion program. This type also helps in monitoring how effectively the activitie s and plans of the health promotion program is working. Child obesity interventions should cover different ecological levels including downstream, midstream and upstream for maximum effectiveness. However, there has been a lack of evaluation data for guiding the implementation and development of the efforts. Thus, the article chosen addresses the knowledge gap through data collected through process evaluation for the prevention of child obesity around the world (Pettigrew 2014). The second is the Impact Evaluation that access the changes attributed to particular intervention like a health promotion program one uses. This type of evaluation structured for understanding the change in the outcomes of the participants if the intervention not implemented (Gertler 2016). The evaluation thus involves counter factual analysis, a comparison between the actual happening and the happenings that would take place in the absence of the particular intervention. Impact evaluation thus helps in answering questions related to cause and effect. The impact evaluation also measures the changes that take place in outcome in response to the program. In implementing health promotion program, impact evaluation used for providing evidence for use in funding and policy decisions (Wang 2013). The article discussed here deals with impact evaluation of interventions for international development on health , education, agriculture and social protection concentrated mostly in Southeast Asia, Central and South America, South Asia and East Africa (Cameron, Mishra, and Brown, 2016) The third type of evaluation is the outcome evaluation that helps in the evaluating the program effectiveness in producing change. Outcome evaluations focuses on questions that are difficult and that deals with the whereabouts of the participants of the program and what difference has been made by it (Moldovan 2016). This type of evaluation when used in case of health promotion program helps to determine the degree to which the program has in the behavior of the target population. This type of evaluation also helps to understand whether the program is effective in meeting the objectives. The article provides an evidence of how an outcome evaluation helped in dealing with suicide prevention program put forward by adolescent peer leaders of high school (Wyman 2010) The discussion here is about health promotion program for the prevention and control of stroke in ethnic, minority and black communities who have poor knowledge of stroke issues compared to the general population. There have been several initiatives for improvement of public awareness about the symptoms of stroke where such cases needed treatment on an immediate basis. Nevertheless, there have been cultural barriers put forward thereby enforcing the need for tailored interventions of health promotion interventions that might be effective (Gardois 2014) As a health promotion officer, if process evaluation conducted on this intervention then it will help in addressing the internal validity of prevention of stroke related issues through asserting the degree to which the implementation of the program took place as intended. The process evaluation also helps in monitoring of all the interventional activities and thereby helps in determining the success and sustainability, identifying mechanisms and at the same time look at the facilitators and barriers of implementation (Srensen et. al 2017). Now if the impact evaluation conducted then it will help in determining the change in the outcome of the participants if prevention and control of stroke in case the intervention not implemented (Braun 2013). This would involve a counter factual analysis where there is a need for comparison between the mortality that is actually taking place and the mortality rate in absence of the particular intervention. Through impact evaluation, answers related to the cause and effect answered. The outcome evaluation will suggest whether the minority and black communities are satisfied with the interventions that helped in reducing the mortality rate due to heart diseases. Thus, this type of evaluation in health promotion intervention when used in a community-setting program helps in determining the degree of impact of the program on the behavior of the target population (Levin and Feldman 2012). Outcome evaluation will also helps in understanding whether the program is effective in meeting the objectives. The report concludes by throwing a light on conducting the Process, Impact and Outcome evaluation on a community based health promotion program. There is also discussion about the three types of evaluation and their importance in the health promotion program. The report also describes about the importance of evaluation of the health promotion programs. References: Bauman, A. and Nutbeam, D., 2013.Evaluation in a nutshell: a practical guide to the evaluation of health promotion programs. McGraw Hill. Braun, R., Catalani, C., Wimbush, J. and Israelski, D., 2013. Community health workers and mobile technology: a systematic review of the literature.PloS one,8(6), p.e65772. Cameron, D.B., Mishra, A. and Brown, A.N., 2016. The growth of impact evaluation for international development: how much have we learned?.Journal of Development Effectiveness,8(1), pp.1-21. Edgerly, C.C., Laing, S.S., Day, A.V.G., Blackinton, P.M., Pingatore, N.L., Haverkate, R.T. and Heany, J.F., 2009. Steps to a Healthier Anishinaabe, Michigan. Health Promotion Practice, 10(2_suppl), pp.109S-117S. Eldredge, L.K.B., Markham, C.M., Ruiter, R.A., Kok, G. and Parcel, G.S., 2016.Planning health promotion programs: an intervention mapping approach. John Wiley Sons. Gardois, P., Booth, A., Goyder, E. and Ryan, T., 2014. Health promotion interventions for increasing stroke awareness in ethnic minorities: a systematic review of the literature.BMC public health,14(1), p.409. Gertler, P.J., Martinez, S., Premand, P., Rawlings, L.B. and Vermeersch, C.M., 2016.Impact evaluation in practice. World Bank Publications. Heath, G.W., Parra, D.C., Sarmiento, O.L., Andersen, L.B., Owen, N., Goenka, S., Montes, F., Brownson, R.C. and Lancet Physical Activity Series Working Group, 2012. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world.The lancet,380(9838), pp.272-281. Levin, R.F. and Feldman, H.R., 2012.Teaching evidence-based practice in nursing. Springer Publishing Company. Moldovan, L., 2016. Training outcome evaluation model.Procedia Technology,22, pp.1184-1190. Moore, G.F., Audrey, S., Barker, M., Bond, L., Bonell, C., Hardeman, W., Moore, L., OCathain, A., Tinati, T., Wight, D. and Baird, J., 2015. Process evaluation of complex interventions: Medical Research Council guidance.bmj,350, p.h1258. Pettigrew, S., Borys, J.M., du Plessis, H.R., Walter, L., Huang, T.T., Levi, J. and Vinck, J., 2014. Process evaluation outcomes from a global child obesity prevention intervention.BMC Public Health,14(1), p.757. Srensen, K., Van den Broucke, S., Fullam, J., Doyle, G., Pelikan, J., Slonska, Z. and Brand, H., 2012. Health literacy and public health: a systematic review and integration of definitions and models.BMC public health,12(1), p.80. Wang, J., 2013. Citation time window choice for research impact evaluation.Scientometrics,94(3), pp.851-872. Wyman, P.A., Brown, C.H., LoMurray, M., Schmeelk-Cone, K., Petrova, M., Yu, Q., Walsh, E., Tu, X. and Wang, W., 2010. An outcome evaluation of the Sources of Strength suicide prevention program delivered by adolescent peer leaders in high schools. American journal of public health, 100(9), pp.1653-1661.